- Vaibhav Madhok

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# Vaibhav Madhok

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Vaibhav Madhok

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Vaibhav Madhok

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Madhok, Vaibhav

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- PublicationCorrigendum to â€œExponential speedup in measuring out-of-time-ordered correlators and gate fidelity with a single bit of quantum informationâ€ [Physics Letters A 397 (2021) 127257] (Physics Letters A (2021) 397, (S0375960121001213), (10.1016/j.physleta.2021.127257))(28-02-2022)
Show more The authors regret an oversight in acknowledging funding. This work was supported in part by grant No. SRG/2019/001094/PMS from SERB and MHRD/DST grants SB20210807PHMHRD008128, SB20210854EEMHRD008074 and DST/ICPS/QusT/Theme-3/2019/Q69. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.Show more - PublicationTypicality in quasispecies evolution in high dimensions(10-10-2019)
;Alfred Ajay Aureate, R.Show more We study quasispecies and closely related evolutionary dynamics like the replicator-mutator equation in high dimensions. In particular, we show that under certain conditions, the average fitness of almost all quasispecies of a given dimension becomes independent of mutational probabilities in high dimensional sequence spaces. This result is a consequence of concentration of measure on a high dimensional hypersphere and its extension to Lipschitz functions known as the Levy's Lemma. Our results naturally extend to other functional capabilities that can be described as Lipschitz functions and whose input parameters are the frequencies of individual constituents of the quasispecies. In order to show this, we give a generalization of Levy's Lemma and discuss possible biological consequences of our work.Show more - PublicationEvolutionary dynamics from deterministic microscopic ecological processes(01-03-2020)
Show more The central goal of a dynamical theory of evolution is to abstract the mean evolutionary trajectory in the trait space by considering ecological processes at the level of the individual. In this work we develop such a theory for a class of deterministic individual-based models describing individual births and deaths, which captures the essential features of standard stochastic individual-based models and becomes identical to the latter under maximal competition. The key motivation is to derive the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics from this microscopic ecological model, which can be regarded as a paradigm to study evolution in a simple way and give it an intuitive geometric interpretation. Another goal is to study evolution and sympatric speciation under maximal competition. We show that these models, in the deterministic limit of adaptive dynamics, lead to the same equations that describe the unraveling of the mean evolutionary trajectory as those obtained from the standard stochastic models. We further study conditions under which these models lead to evolutionary branching and find them to be similar to those obtained from the standard stochastic models. We find that, although deterministic models result in a strong competition that leads to a speedup in the temporal dynamics of a population cloud in the phenotypic space as well as an increase in the rate of generation of biodiversity, they do not seem to result in an absolute increase in biodiversity as far as the total number of species is concerned. Hence, they essentially capture all the features of the standard stochastic model. Interestingly, the notion of a fitness function does not explicitly enter in our derivation of the canonical equation, thereby advocating a mechanistic view of evolution based on fundamental birth-death events where fitness is a derived quantity rather than a fundamental ingredient. We illustrate our work with the help of several examples and qualitatively compare the rate of unraveling of evolutionary trajectory and generation of biodiversity for the deterministic and standard individual-based models by showing the motion of population clouds in the trait space.Show more - PublicationOut-of-time-ordered correlators and the Loschmidt echo in the quantum kicked top: How low can we go?(01-07-2021)
;Pg, Sreeram; Show more The out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs) and the Loschmidt echo are two measures that are now widely being explored to characterize sensitivity to perturbations and information scrambling in complex quantum systems. Studying few qubits systems collectively modeled as a kicked top, we solve exactly the three- and four-qubit cases, giving analytical results for the OTOC and the Loschmidt echo. While we may not expect such few-body systems to display semiclassical features, we find that there are clear signatures of the exponential growth of OTOC even in systems with as low as four qubits in appropriate regimes, paving way for possible experimental measurements. We explain qualitatively how classical phase space structures like fixed points and periodic orbits have an influence on these quantities and how our results compare to the large-spin kicked top model. Finally we point to a peculiar case at the border of quantum-classical correspondence which is solvable for any number of qubits and yet has signatures of exponential sensitivity in a rudimentary form.Show more - PublicationQuantum signatures of chaos, thermalization, and tunneling in the exactly solvable few-body kicked top(19-06-2019)
;Dogra, Shruti; Show more Exactly solvable models that exhibit quantum signatures of classical chaos are both rare as well as important - more so in view of the fact that the mechanisms for ergodic behavior and thermalization in isolated quantum systems and its connections to nonintegrability are under active investigation. In this work, we study quantum systems of few qubits collectively modeled as a kicked top, a textbook example of quantum chaos. In particular, we show that the three- and four-qubit cases are exactly solvable and yet, interestingly, can display signatures of ergodicity and thermalization. Deriving analytical expressions for entanglement entropy and concurrence, we see agreement in certain parameter regimes between long-time average values and ensemble averages of random states with permutation symmetry. Comparing with results using the data of a recent transmons-based experiment realizing the three-qubit case, we find agreement for short times, including a peculiar steplike behavior in correlations of some states. In the case of four qubits we point to a precursor of dynamical tunneling between what in the classical limit would be two stable islands. Numerical results for larger number of qubits show the emergence of the classical limit including signatures of a bifurcation.Show more - PublicationQuantum tomography with random diagonal unitary maps and statistical bounds on information generation using random matrix theory(01-09-2021)
;Pg, SreeramShow more We study quantum tomography from a continuous measurement record obtained by measuring expectation values of a set of Hermitian operators obtained from unitary evolution of an initial observable. For this purpose, we consider the application of a random unitary, diagonal in a fixed basis at each time step, and quantify the information gain in tomography using Fisher information of the measurement record and the Shannon entropy associated with the eigenvalues of covariance matrix of the estimation. Surprisingly, very high fidelity of reconstruction is obtained using random unitaries diagonal in a fixed basis even although the measurement record is not informationally complete. We then compare this with the information generated and fidelities obtained by application of a different Haar random unitary at each time step. We give an upper bound on the maximal information that can be obtained in tomography and show that a covariance matrix taken from the Wishart-Laguerre ensemble of random matrices and the associated Marchenko-Pastur distribution saturates this bound. We find that physically, this corresponds to an application of a different Haar random unitary at each time step. We show that repeated application of random diagonal unitaries gives a covariance matrix in tomographic estimation that corresponds to a new ensemble of random matrices. We analytically and numerically estimate eigenvalues of this ensemble and show the information gain to be bounded from below by the Porter-Thomas distribution.Show more - PublicationEffect of chaos on information gain in quantum tomography(01-08-2022)
;Sahu, Abinash ;Pg, SreeramShow more Does chaos in the dynamics enable or impede information gain in quantum tomography? We address this question by considering continuous measurement tomography in which the measurement record is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian observable evolving under the repeated application of the Floquet map of the quantum kicked top. For a given dynamics and Hermitian observables, we observe completely opposite behavior in the tomography of well-localized spin coherent states compared to random states. As the chaos in the dynamics increases, the reconstruction fidelity of spin coherent states decreases. This contrasts with the previous results connecting information gain in tomography of random states with the degree of chaos in the dynamics that drives the system. The rate of information gain and hence the fidelity obtained in tomography depends not only on the degree of chaos in the dynamics and to what extent it causes the initial observable to spread in various directions of the operator space, but, more importantly, how well these directions are aligned with the density matrix to be estimated. Our study also gives an operational interpretation for operator spreading in terms of fidelity gain in an actual quantum information tomography protocol.Show more - PublicationExponential speedup in measuring out-of-time-ordered correlators and gate fidelity with a single bit of quantum information(06-05-2021)
;Pg, Sreeram ;Varikuti, Naga DileepShow more Out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOC) are a quantifier of quantum information scrambling and are useful in characterizing quantum chaos. We propose an efficient quantum algorithm to measure OTOCs that provides an exponential speed-up over the best known classical algorithm provided the OTOC operator to be estimated admits an efficient gate decomposition. We also discuss a scheme to obtain information about the eigenvalue spectrum and the spectral density of OTOCs as well as an efficient algorithm to estimate gate fidelities.Show more - PublicationQuantum correlations as probes of chaos and ergodicity(01-08-2018)
; ;Dogra, ShrutiShow more Long-time average behavior of quantum correlations in a multi-qubit system, collectively modeled as a kicked top, is addressed here. The behavior of dynamical generation of quantum correlations such as entanglement, discord, concurrence, as previously studied, and Bell correlation function and tangle, as identified in this study, is a function of initially localized coherent states. Their long-time average reproduces coarse-grained classical phase space structures of the kicked top which contrast, often starkly, chaotic and regular regions. Apart from providing numerical evidence of such correspondence in the semiclassical regime of a large number of qubits, we use data from a recent transmons based experiment to explore this in the deep quantum regime of a 3-qubit kicked top. The degree to which quantum correlations can be regarded as a quantum signature of chaos, and in what ways the various correlation measures are similar or distinct are discussed.Show more - PublicationTripartite mutual information, entanglement, and scrambling in permutation symmetric systems with an application to quantum chaos(06-11-2018)
;Seshadri, Akshay; Show more Many-body states that are invariant under particle relabeling, the permutation symmetric states, occur naturally when the system dynamics is described by symmetric processes or collective spin operators. We derive expressions for the reduced density matrix for arbitrary subsystem decomposition for these states and study properties of permutation symmetric states and their subsystems when the joint system is picked randomly and uniformly. Thus defining an appropriate random matrix ensemble, we find the average linear entropy and von Neumann entropy, which implies that random permutation symmetric states are marginally entangled and as a consequence the tripartite mutual information (TMI) is typically positive, preventing information from being shared globally. Applying these results to the quantum kicked top viewed as a multiqubit system, we find that entanglement, mutual information, and TMI all increase for large subsystems across the Ehrenfest or logarithmic time and saturate at the random state values if there is global chaos. During this time the out-of-time-order correlators evolve exponentially, implying scrambling in phase space. We discuss how positive TMI may coexist with such scrambling.Show more