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# Rajesh G

#### Viscous corrections for hypersonic air intake using cfd simulations

01-01-2019, Sinha, Nitesh Kumar, Rajesh, G., Modi, Badal

Scramjet air intakes are used to reduce incoming air flow speed from Mach 6 to Mach 2 through a sequence of oblique shock waves. In the process, stagnation pressure loss has to be minimized. Air intake designs are optimized using inviscid Euler flow solutions. Due to viscous effects, optimized shock configuration is distorted. Corrections based on displacement layer thickness are known to reduce distortion to great extent. Corrections based on boundary layer thickness and sonic line thickness are presented. Computation of these two corrections are computationally cheaper relative to one based displacement layer thickness & yields acceptable reduction in distortion.

#### Functional gradation of aluminum alloy by impact of ballistics as severe plastic deformation process

01-04-2023, Mishra, Vagish D., Mishra, Ashish, Verma, Luv, Rajesh G, Balkrishna C. Rao, Hema A Murthy

In the present effort, impact of bullets fired at high speeds on a stationary target was used as a high strain-rate plastic deformation method to generate Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs). The bullet-shaped Aluminum alloy Al5052 specimens impacted the UHMWPE target at different projectile velocities ranging from 100 m/s to 750 m/s, to study the effect of the impact speed. Moreover, few of the projectiles impacted along the longitudinal axis whereas the remaining projectiles impacted with an obliquity to investigate the effect of leading-edge shape. The metallography of the projectile specimens fired at 750 m/s shows grain refinement from 70 ± 3 μm at the rear/ un-deformed point to 10 ± 1 μm at the front/ severely deformed point which is in the impact zone. Similar but of less magnitude variations were observed at other impact speeds also. The hardness variation was 45% (70 ± 3 HV at the rear surface to 102 ± 2 HV at the front face) at 750 m/s. Moreover, least variation in hardness and grain size was observed for projectile impacted at lowest velocity tested (100 m/s). Further, functionality in hardness and grain refinement was seen in graded direction due to shape of the projectile specimens, impact velocity, and target material. Depending upon the impact angles, axisymmetric (impacted normal to the longitudinal axis) or unsymmetrical (impacted at an angle) variation of grain refinement and hardness was observed.

#### System identification for nonlinear maneuvering of large tankers using artificial neural network

01-10-2008, Rajesh G, Subroto Kumar Bhattacharya

This paper deals with the application of nonparametric system identification to a nonlinear maneuvering model for large tankers using artificial neural network method. The three coupled maneuvering equations in this model for large tankers contain linear and nonlinear terms and instead of attempting to determine the parameters (i.e. hydrodynamic derivatives) associated with nonlinear terms, all nonlinear terms are clubbed together to form one unknown time function per equation which are sought to be represented by the neural network coefficients. The time series used in training the network are obtained from simulated data of zigzag maneuvers and the proposed method has been applied to these data. The neural network scheme adopted in this work has one middle or hidden layer of neurons and it employs the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Using the best choices for the number of hidden layer neurons, length of training data, convergence tolerance etc., the performance of the proposed neural network model has been investigated and conclusions drawn. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

#### An analytical model for asymmetric Mach reflection configuration in steady flows

25-03-2019, Roy, Shobhan, Gopalapillai, Rajesh

An analytical model is presented for the configuration of Mach reflection (MR) due to the interaction of two-dimensional steady supersonic flow over asymmetric wedges. The present asymmetric MR model is an extension of an earlier model for the symmetric MR configuration. The overall Mach reflection (oMR) in the asymmetric wedge configuration is analysed as a combination of upper and lower half-domains of symmetric reflection configurations. Suitable assumptions are made to close the combined set of equations. The subsonic pocket downstream of the Mach stem is taken to be oriented along an average inclination, based on the streamline deflections by the Mach stem at the triple points. This assumption is found to give satisfactory results for all types of oMR configurations. The oMR configuration is predicted for all types of reflections such as direct Mach reflection (DiMR), stationary Mach reflection (StMR) and inverse Mach reflection (InMR). The reflection configuration and Mach stem shape given by the model for various sets of wedge angles, especially those giving rise to InMR, have been predicted and validated with the available numerical and experimental data. The von Neumann criterion for oMR is accurately predicted by this model. The asymmetric Mach stem profile is well captured. The variation of Mach stem height with wedge angle is also analysed and it is found that simplification of an asymmetric MR to a symmetric MR leads to over-prediction of the Mach stem height and hence the extent of the subsonic region.

#### Effect of heat transfer and geometry on micro-thruster performance

01-12-2019, Rafi, K. M.Muhammed, Deepu, M., Rajesh, G.

Coupled Navier-Stokes and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (NS-DSMC) simulations of gas flow in micro-nozzles for various wall thermal conditions and geometrical aspects are presented. Micro-thrusters employed in miniature spacecraft and microsatellites experience substantial changes in wall thermal conditions. This can influence the internal boundary layer development and the exit plume structure of a micro-nozzle. These changes in flow physics differ with the nozzle divergence angle and the proximity of a similar nozzle in the cluster. Continuum solvers often fail to analyze the micro-nozzles operating in vacuum conditions as the flow in micro-nozzles experiences continuum, transitional, and rarefied regimes. Coupled NS-DSMC solver is an effective alternative that can simulate the non-equilibrium effects in a micro-nozzle flow field. A steady solution of the entire flow field has been obtained using a non-linear Harten-Lax-van Leer-Contact (HLLC) scheme based finite volume solver with a higher order slip boundary condition. Continuum breakdown regions are identified based on the gradient-length local (GLL) Knudsen number condition. This initial steady solution on the flow transition boundary is implemented in the DSMC solver as a Dirichlet boundary condition. The present computations are useful in calibrating micro-propulsion controllers to adapt to the substantial momentum changes associated with various nozzle wall thermal conditions and the proximity of similar nozzles in the cluster.

#### Shock transformation and hysteresis in underexpanded confined jets

25-07-2017, Arun Kumar, R., Rajesh, G.

This study investigates the shock transformation in an underexpanded jet in a confined duct when the jet total pressure is increased. Experimental study reveals that the Mach reflection (MR) in the fully underexpanded jet transforms to a regular reflection (RR) at a certain jet total pressure. It is observed that neither the incident shock angle nor the upstream Mach number varies during the MR-RR shock transformation. This is in contradiction to the classical MR-RR transformations in internal flow over wedges and in underexpanded open jets. This transformation is found to be a total pressure variation induced transformation, which is a new kind of shock transformation. The present study also reveals that the critical jet total pressures for MR-RR and RR-MR transformations are not the same when the primary pressure is increasing and decreasing, suggesting a hysteresis in the shock transformations.

#### Effect of geometric configurations on the starting transients in vacuum ejector

01-01-2019, Kumar, R. Arun, Rajesh, G.

This paper investigates the starting transients in vacuum ejector and its dependence on various geometric configurations. Various geometric parameters investigated were the ratio of diffuser to primary duct height (D∕d), diffuser length–to–diffuser height ratio (L∕D), and secondary chamber height–to–secondary jet thickness ratio (hs∕ts). It is seen that the vacuum ejector start-up is associated with a gradual initial vacuum generation stage, which is followed by a rapid vacuum generation. The gradual vacuum generation is found to be caused by the mass supply by the recirculation bubble (existing in the diffuser) to the secondary chamber exit plane. The rapid evacuation happens when the initial recirculation bubble splits up, which results in a rapid reduction of the amount of reverse flow mass reaching the secondary chamber. It is found that with reduction in the D∕d ratio and increase in the L∕D ratio, the rapid evacuation stage reduces and eventually vanishes. The present investigation shows that both these configuration changes reduce the mass supply by reverse flow to the secondary chamber and this is attributed to the cause of the reduction in rapid evacuation stage. The present study also shows that the nature of vacuum generation does not vary with change in secondary chamber height.

#### System identification for nonlinear maneuvering of ships using neural network

01-03-2010, Rajesh G, Giri Rajasekhar, G., Subroto Kumar Bhattacharya

This paper deals with the application of nonparametric system identification to the nonlinear maneuvering of ships using neural network method. The maneuvering equations contain linear as well as nonlinear terms, and one does not attempt to determine the parameters (or hydrodynamic derivatives) associated with nonlinear terms, rather all nonlinear terms are clubbed together to form one unknown time function per equation, which are sought to be represented by neural network coefficients. The time series used in training the network are obtained from simulated data of zigzag and spiral maneuvers. The neural network has one middle or hidden layer of neurons and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to obtain the network coefficients. Using the best choices for number of hidden layer neurons, length of training data, convergence tolerance, and so forth, the performances of the proposed neural network models have been investigated and conclusions drawn.

#### Propagation of a planar shock wave along a convex-concave ramp

01-01-2021, Thara Reshma, I. V., Vinoth, P., Rajesh, G., Ben-Dor, G.

The propagation of a normal shock wave along a coupled convex-concave surface of equal radii has been analysed experimentally and numerically in this study. The experimental and numerical studies were conducted using a similar geometry as of that used by Ram et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 768, 2015, pp. 219-239) for studying the shock wave transition from regular reflection to Mach reflection. Many interesting flow features such as shock wave transitions over the ramp, characteristics of the induced flow behind the shock wave and the development of a stationary separation shock wave have been observed in the study. The numerical results are validated with experimental data. While the shock wave transitions over the ramp are found to depend mainly on the ramp geometry, the characteristics of the stationary shock wave and the flow separation in the concave region of the ramp surface have been found to vary with the shock wave Mach numbers.

#### The reflection and refraction of a curved shock front sliding over an airâ€“water interface

01-09-2022, Arun Kumar, R., Rajesh G, Jagadeesh, G.

The present study aims to investigate the reflection and refraction of a curved shock front as it slides along an air–water interface, using the time-resolved shadowgraph technique. The curved shock front is generated from a free-piston shock tube. The study successfully captured the propagation of a refracted shock wave in water along with that of the reflected shock wave in the air. The refracted shock moves much faster than the incident shock due to a higher acoustic speed in the water. It is seen that the reflected shock initially exhibits a regular reflection (RR), which then transitions to a Mach reflection (MR) as it propagates along the interface. As the shock wave propagates along the air–water interface, the incident shock wave angle with the interface keeps on increasing, leading to RR–MR transition. Shock polar analysis shows that as the Mach reflection structure propagates further along the interface, it transitions from a standard Mach reflection to a non-standard Mach reflection. It is seen that the distance the shock wave propagates along the interface before it transitions from RR to MR increases with the increase in the interface distance (distance between the water surface and the shock tube axis). It is also found that the reflection surface (water or solid) does not seem to have a significant effect on the shock transition criterion, especially the distance at which the shock wave transitions from RR to MR.