- Raman I Sujith

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# Raman I Sujith

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Raman I Sujith

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Raman I Sujith

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Sujith, Raman I.

Sujith, Raman

Sujith, R.

Sujith, R. I.

Sujith, Ri

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- PublicationUniversality in the emergence of oscillatory instabilities in turbulent flows(01-01-2020)
;Pavithran, Induja ;Unni, Vishnu R. ;Varghese, Alan J.; ;Saha, Abhishek ;Marwan, NorbertKurths, JÃ¼rgenShow more Self-organization driven by feedback between subsystems is ubiquitous in turbulent fluid mechanical systems. This self-organization manifests as emergence of oscillatory instabilities and is often studied in different system-specific frameworks. We uncover the existence of a universal scaling behaviour during self-organization in turbulent flows leading to oscillatory instability. Our experiments show that the spectral amplitude of the dominant mode of oscillations scales with the Hurst exponent of a fluctuating state variable following an inverse power law relation. Interestingly, we observe the same power law behaviour with a constant exponent near -2 across various turbulent systems such as aeroacoustic, thermoacoustic and aeroelastic systems.Show more - PublicationPredicting the amplitude of thermoacoustic instability using universal scaling behaviour(01-01-2021)
;Pavithran, Induja ;Unni, Vishnu R. ;Saha, Abhishek ;Varghese, Alan J.; ;Marwan, NorbertKurths, JÃ¼rgenShow more The complex interaction between the turbulent flow, combustion and the acoustic field in gas turbine engines often results in thermoacoustic instability that produces ruinously high-amplitude pressure oscillations. These self-sustained periodic oscillations may result in a sudden failure of engine components and associated electronics, and increased thermal and vibra-tional loads. Estimating the amplitude of the limit cycle oscillations (LCO) that are expected during thermoacoustic instability helps in devising strategies to mitigate and to limit the possible damages due to thermoacoustic instability. We propose two methodologies to estimate the amplitude using only the pressure measurements acquired during stable operation. First, we use the universal scaling relation of the amplitude of the dominant mode of oscillations with the Hurst exponent to predict the amplitude of the LCO. We also present a methodology to estimate the amplitudes of different modes of oscillations separately using 'spectral measures' which quantify the sharpening of peaks in the amplitude spectrum. The scaling relation enables us to predict the peak amplitude at thermoacoustic instability, given the data during the safe operating condition. The accuracy of prediction is tested for both methods, using the data acquired from a laboratory-scale turbulent combustor. The estimates are in good agreement with the actual amplitudes.Show more - PublicationDetection of dynamical regime transitions with lacunarity as a multiscale recurrence quantification measure(01-06-2021)
;Braun, Tobias ;Unni, Vishnu R.; ;Kurths, JuergenMarwan, NorbertShow more We propose lacunarity as a novel recurrence quantification measure and illustrate its efficacy to detect dynamical regime transitions which are exhibited by many complex real-world systems. We carry out a recurrence plot-based analysis for different paradigmatic systems and nonlinear empirical data in order to demonstrate the ability of our method to detect dynamical transitions ranging across different temporal scales. It succeeds to distinguish states of varying dynamical complexity in the presence of noise and non-stationarity, even when the time series is of short length. In contrast to traditional recurrence quantifiers, no specification of minimal line lengths is required and geometric features beyond linear structures in the recurrence plot can be accounted for. This makes lacunarity more broadly applicable as a recurrence quantification measure. Lacunarity is usually interpreted as a measure of heterogeneity or translational invariance of an arbitrary spatial pattern. In application to recurrence plots, it quantifies the degree of heterogeneity in the temporal recurrence patterns at all relevant time scales. We demonstrate the potential of the proposed method when applied to empirical data, namely time series of acoustic pressure fluctuations from a turbulent combustor. Recurrence lacunarity captures both the rich variability in dynamical complexity of acoustic pressure fluctuations and shifting time scales encoded in the recurrence plots. Furthermore, it contributes to a better distinction between stable operation and near blowout states of combustors.Show more - PublicationMultifractal analysis of flame dynamics during transition to thermoacoustic instability in a turbulent combustor(01-01-2020)
;Raghunathan, Manikandan ;George, Nitin B. ;Unni, Vishnu R. ;Midhun, P. R. ;Reeja, K. V.Show more Gas turbine combustors are susceptible to thermoacoustic instability, which manifests as large amplitude periodic oscillations in acoustic pressure and heat release rate. The transition from a stable operation characterized by combustion noise to thermoacoustic instability in turbulent combustors has been described as an emergence of order (periodicity) from chaos in the temporal dynamics. This emergence of order in the acoustic pressure oscillations corresponds to a loss of multifractality in the pressure signal. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a turbulent flame in a bluff-body stabilized combustor during the transition from combustion noise to thermoacoustic instability. During the occurrence of combustion noise, the flame wrinkles due to the presence of small-scale vortices in the turbulent flow. On the other hand, during thermoacoustic instability, large-scale coherent structures emerge periodically. These large-scale coherent structures roll up the wrinkled flame surface further and introduce additional complexity in the flame topology. We perform multifractal analysis on the flame contours detected from high-speed planar Mie scattering images of the reactive flow seeded with non-reactive tracer particles. We find that multifractality exists in the flame topology for all the dynamical states during the transition to thermoacoustic instability. We discuss the variation of multifractal parameters for the different states. We find that the multifractal spectrum oscillates periodically during the occurrence of thermoacoustic instability at the time scale of the acoustic pressure oscillations. The loss of multifractality in the temporal dynamics and the oscillation of the multifractal spectrum of the spatial dynamics go hand in hand.Show more - PublicationDynamical characterization of thermoacoustic oscillations in a hydrogen-enriched partially premixed swirl-stabilized methane/air combustor(01-01-2021)
;Kushwaha, Abhishek ;Kasthuri, Praveen ;Pawar, Samadhan A.; ;Chterev, IankoBoxx, IsaacShow more In this study, we systematically analyze the effects of hydrogen enrichment in the well-known PRECCINSTA burner, a partially premixed swirl-stabilized methane/air combustor. Keeping the equivalence ratio and thermal power constant, we vary the hydrogen percentage in the fuel. Successive increments in hydrogen fuel fraction increase the adiabatic flame temperature and also shift the dominant frequencies of acoustic pressure fluctuations to higher values. Under hydrogen enrichment, we observe the emergence of periodicity in the combustor resulting from the interaction between acoustic modes. As a result of the interaction between these modes, the combustor exhibits a variety of dynamical states, including period-1 limit cycle oscillations (LCO), period-2 LCO, chaotic oscillations, and intermittency. The flame and flow behavior is found to be significantly different for each dynamical state. Analyzing the coupled behavior of the acoustic pressure and the heat release rate oscillations during the states of thermoacoustic instability, we report the occurrence of 2:1 frequency-locking during period-2 LCO, where two cycles of acoustic pressure lock with one cycle of the heat release rate. During period-1 LCO, we notice 1:1 frequency-locking, where both acoustic pressure and heat release rate repeat their behavior in every cycle.Show more - PublicationDynamical Characterization of Thermoacoustic Oscillations in a Hydrogen-Enriched Partially Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Methane/Air Combustor(01-12-2021)
;Kushwaha, Abhishek ;Kasthuri, Praveen ;Pawar, Samadhan A.; ;Chterev, IankoBoxx, IsaacShow more In this study, we systematically analyze the effects of hydrogen enrichment in the well-known PRECCINSTA burner, a partially premixed swirl-stabilized methane/air combustor. Keeping the equivalence ratio and thermal power constant, we vary the hydrogen percentage in the fuel. Successive increments in hydrogen fuel fraction increase the adiabatic flame temperature and also shift the dominant frequencies of acoustic pressure fluctuations to higher values. Under hydrogen enrichment, we observe the emergence of periodicity in the combustor resulting from the interaction between acoustic modes. As a result of the interaction between these modes, the combustor exhibits a variety of dynamical states, including period-1 limit cycle oscillations (LCO), period-2 LCO, chaotic oscillations, and intermittency. The flame and flow behavior is found to be significantly different for each dynamical state. Analyzing the coupled behavior of the acoustic pressure and the heat release rate oscillations during the states of thermoacoustic instability, we report the occurrence of 2:1 frequency-locking during period-2 LCO, where two cycles of acoustic pressure lock with one cycle of the heat release rate. During period-1 LCO, we notice 1:1 frequency-locking, where both acoustic pressure and heat release rate repeat their behavior in every cycle.Show more - PublicationMitigation of limit cycle oscillations in a turbulent thermoacoustic system via delayed acoustic self-feedback(01-04-2023)
;Sahay, Ankit ;Kushwaha, Abhishek ;Pawar, Samadhan A. ;Midhun, P. R. ;Dhadphale, Jayesh M.Show more We report the occurrence of amplitude death (AD) of limit cycle oscillations in a bluff body stabilized turbulent combustor through delayed acoustic self-feedback. Such feedback control is achieved by coupling the acoustic field of the combustor to itself through a single coupling tube attached near the anti-node position of the acoustic standing wave. We observe that the amplitude and dominant frequency of the limit cycle oscillations gradually decrease as the length of the coupling tube is increased. Complete suppression (AD) of these oscillations is observed when the length of the coupling tube is nearly 3 / 8 times the wavelength of the fundamental acoustic mode of the combustor. Meanwhile, as we approach this state of amplitude death, the dynamical behavior of acoustic pressure changes from the state of limit cycle oscillations to low-amplitude chaotic oscillations via intermittency. We also study the change in the nature of the coupling between the unsteady flame dynamics and the acoustic field as the length of the coupling tube is increased. We find that the temporal synchrony between these oscillations changes from the state of synchronized periodicity to desynchronized aperiodicity through intermittent synchronization. Furthermore, we reveal that the application of delayed acoustic self-feedback with optimum feedback parameters completely disrupts the positive feedback loop between hydrodynamic, acoustic, and heat release rate fluctuations present in the combustor during thermoacoustic instability, thus mitigating instability. We anticipate this method to be a viable and cost-effective option to mitigate thermoacoustic oscillations in turbulent combustion systems used in practical propulsion and power systems.Show more - PublicationDynamical systems and complex systems theory to study unsteady combustion(01-01-2021)
; Unni, Vishnu R.Show more Reacting flow fields are often subject to unsteadiness due to flow, reaction, diffusion, and acoustics. Further, flames can also exhibit inherent unsteadiness caused by various intrinsic instabilities. Interaction between various unsteady processes across multiple scales often makes combustion dynamics complex. Characterizing such complex dynamics is essential to ensure the safe and reliable operation of high efficiency combustion systems. Tools from nonlinear dynamics and complex systems theory provide new perspectives to analyze and interpret the data from real systems. They could also provide new ways of monitoring and controlling combustion systems. We discuss recent advances in studying unsteady combustion dynamics using the tools from dynamical systems theory and complex systems theory. We cover a range of problems involving unsteady combustion such as thermoacoustic instability, flame blowout, fire propagation, reaction chemistry and flow flame interaction.Show more - PublicationCondensation in the phase space and network topology during transition from chaos to order in turbulent thermoacoustic systems(01-04-2021)
;Tandon, ShrutiShow more The emergence of oscillatory dynamics (order) from chaotic fluctuations is a well-known phenomenon in turbulent thermoacoustic, aero-acoustic, and aeroelastic systems and is often detrimental to the system. We study the dynamics of two distinct turbulent thermoacoustic systems, bluff-body and swirl-stabilized combustors, where the transition occurs from the state of combustion noise (chaos) to thermoacoustic instability (order) via the route of intermittency. Using unweighted complex networks built from phase space cycles of the acoustic pressure oscillations, we characterize the topology of the phase space during various dynamical states in these combustors. We propose the use of network centrality measures derived from cycle networks as a novel means to characterize the number and stability of periodic orbits in the phase space and to study the topological transformations in the phase space during the emergence of order from chaos in the combustors. During the state of combustion noise, we show that the phase space consists of several unstable periodic orbits, which influence the phase space trajectory. As order emerges in the system dynamics, the number of periodic orbits decreases and their stability increases. At the onset of oscillatory dynamics, the phase space consists of a stable periodic orbit. We also use network centrality measures to identify the onset of thermoacoustic instability in both the combustors. Finally, we propose that the onset of oscillatory instabilities in turbulent systems is analogous to Bose-Einstein condensation transition observed for bosons, if we define phase space cycles as particles and the periodic orbits as energy levels.Show more - PublicationPreventing a global transition to thermoacoustic instability by targeting local dynamics(01-12-2022)
;George, Nitin Babu ;Raghunathan, Manikandan ;Unni, Vishnu R.; ;Kurths, JÃ¼rgenSurovyatkina, ElenaShow more The burning of fossil fuels to generate power produces harmful emissions. Lowering such emissions in gas turbine engines is possible by operating them at fuel-lean conditions. However, such strategies often fail because, under fuel-lean conditions, the combustors are prone to catastrophic high-amplitude oscillations known as thermoacoustic instability. We reveal that, as an operating parameter is varied in time, the transition to thermoacoustic instability is initiated at specific spatial regions before it is observed in larger regions of the combustor. We use two indicators to discover such inceptive regions: the growth of variance of fluctuations in spatially resolved heat release rate and its spatiotemporal evolution. In this study, we report experimental evidence of suppression of the global transition to thermoacoustic instability through targeted modification of local dynamics at the inceptive regions. We strategically arrange slots on the flame anchor, which, in turn, reduce the local heat release rate fluctuations at the inceptive regions and thus suppress the global transition to thermoacoustic instability. Our results open new perspectives for combustors that are more environmental-friendly.Show more