- Santanu Sarkar

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# Santanu Sarkar

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Santanu Sarkar

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Santanu Sarkar

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- PublicationCryptanalysis of variants of RSA with multiple small secret exponents(01-01-2015)
;Peng, Liqiang ;Hu, Lei ;Lu, Yao; ;Xu, JunHuang, ZhangjieShow more In this paper, we analyze the security of two variants of the RSA public key cryptosystem where multiple encryption and decryption exponents are used with a common modulus. For the most well known variant, CRT-RSA, assume that n encryption and decryption exponents (el, dpl, dql), where l = 1, …, n, are used with a common CRT-RSA modulus N. By utilizing a Minkowski sum based lattice construction and combining several modular equations which share a common variable, we prove that one can factor N when (Formula presented) for all l = 1, …, n. We further improve this bound to (Formula presented) for all l = 1, …, n. Moreover, our experiments do better than previous works by Jochemsz-May (Crypto 2007) and Herrmann-May (PKC 2010) when multiple exponents are used. For Takagi’s variant of RSA, assume that n key pairs (el, dl) for l = 1, …, n are available for a common modulus N = prq where r ≥ 2. By solving several simultaneous modular univariate linear equations, we show that when (Formula presented), for all l = 1, …, n, one can factor the common modulus N.Show more - PublicationCryptanalysis of elliptic curve hidden number problem from PKC 2017(01-02-2020)
;Xu, Jun ;Hu, LeiShow more In PKC 2017, the elliptic curve hidden number problem (EC-HNP) was revisited in order to rigorously assess the bit security of the elliptic curve Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol. In this paper, we solve EC-HNP by using the Coppersmith technique which combines the idea behind the second lattice method of Boneh, Halevi and Howgrave-Graham for solving the modular inversion hidden number problem. We show that the hidden point in EC-HNP can be recovered asymptotically if about half of the most significant bits of the x-coordinates of the corresponding points are given. A similar result is also obtained for the least significant bits. We provide better bounds than the one in the work of PKC 2017, which needs about 5/6 of the bits as a result of a rigorous algorithm. However, our solution is based on a heuristic assumption. We verify the validity of our heuristic algorithm by computer experiments.Show more - PublicationRevisiting orthogonal lattice attacks on approximate common divisor problems(08-04-2022)
;Xu, Jun; Hu, LeiShow more In this paper, we revisit three existing types of orthogonal lattice (OL) attacks and propose optimized cases to solve approximate common divisor (ACD) problems. In order to reduce both space and time costs, we also make an improved lattice using the rounding technique. Further, we present asymptotic formulas of the time complexities on our optimizations as well as three known OL attacks. Besides, we give specific conditions that the optimized OL attacks can work and show how the attack ability depends on the blocksize β in the BKZ-β algorithm.Show more - PublicationRevisiting Approximate Polynomial Common Divisor Problem and Noisy Multipolynomial Reconstruction(01-01-2019)
;Xu, Jun; Hu, LeiShow more In this paper, we present a polynomial lattice method to solve the approximate polynomial common divisor problem. This problem is the polynomial version of the well known approximate integer common divisor problem introduced by Howgrave-Graham (Calc 2001). Our idea can be applied directly to solve the noisy multipolynomial reconstruction problem in the field of error-correcting codes. Compared to the method proposed by Devet, Goldberg and Heninger in USENIX 2012, our approach is faster.Show more - PublicationCryptanalysis of multi-prime Î¦ -hiding assumption(01-01-2016)
;Xu, Jun ;Hu, Lei; ;Zhang, Xiaona ;Huang, ZhangjiePeng, LiqiangShow more In Crypto 2010, Kiltz, O’Neill and Smith used m -prime RSA modulus N with m ≥ 3 for constructing lossy RSA. The security of the proposal is based on the Multi-Prime Φ -Hiding Assumption. In this paper, we propose a heuristic algorithm based on the Herrmann-May lat- tice method (Asiacrypt 2008) to solve the Multi-Prime Φ -Hiding Problem when prime e > N2/3M. Further, by combining with mixed lattice tech- niques, we give an improved heuristic algorithm to solve this problem when prime e > N2/3M-1/4m2. These two results are verified by our experiments. Our bounds are better than the existing works.Show more - PublicationNew Results on Modular Inversion Hidden Number Problem and Inversive Congruential Generator(01-01-2019)
;Xu, Jun; ;Hu, Lei ;Wang, HuaxiongPan, YanbinShow more The Modular Inversion Hidden Number Problem (MIHNP), introduced by Boneh, Halevi and Howgrave-Graham in Asiacrypt 2001, is briefly described as follows: Let$${\mathrm {MSB}}_{\delta }(z)$$ refer to the$$\delta $$ most significant bits of z. Given many samples$$\left(t_{i}, {\mathrm {MSB}}_{\delta }((\alpha + t_{i})^{-1} \bmod {p})\right) $$ for random$$t:i \in \mathbb {Z}_p$$, the goal is to recover the hidden number$$\alpha \in \mathbb {Z}_p$$. MIHNP is an important class of Hidden Number Problem. In this paper, we revisit the Coppersmith technique for solving a class of modular polynomial equations, which is respectively derived from the recovering problem of the hidden number$$\alpha $$ in MIHNP. For any positive integer constant d, let integer$$n=d^{3+o(1)}$$. Given a sufficiently large modulus p,$$n+1$$ samples of MIHNP, we present a heuristic algorithm to recover the hidden number$$\alpha $$ with a probability close to 1 when$$\delta /\log _2 p>\frac{1}{d\,+\,1}+o(\frac{1}{d})$$. The overall time complexity of attack is polynomial in$$\log _2 p$$, where the complexity of the LLL algorithm grows as$$d^{\mathcal {O}(d)}$$ and the complexity of the Gröbner basis computation grows as$$(2d)^{\mathcal {O}(n^2)}$$. When$$d> 2$$, this asymptotic bound outperforms$$\delta /\log _2 p>\frac{1}{3}$$ which is the asymptotic bound proposed by Boneh, Halevi and Howgrave-Graham in Asiacrypt 2001. It is the first time that a better bound for solving MIHNP is given, which implies that the conjecture that MIHNP is hard whenever$$\delta /\log _2 p<\frac{1}{3}$$ is broken. Moreover, we also get the best result for attacking the Inversive Congruential Generator (ICG) up to now.Show more - PublicationRevisiting Modular Inversion Hidden Number Problem and Its Applications(01-08-2023)
;Xu, Jun; ;Hu, Lei ;Wang, HuaxiongPan, YanbinShow more The Modular Inversion Hidden Number Problem (MIHNP), which was proposed at Asiacrypt 2001 by Boneh, Halevi, and Howgrave-Graham, is summarized as follows: Assume that the δ most significant bits of z are denoted by MSBδ(z). The goal is to retrieve the hidden number α ϵ ℤp given many samples (ti,MSBδ((α + ti)-1 mod p)) for random ti ϵ ℤp. MIHNP is a significant subset of Hidden Number Problems. Eichenauer and Lehn introduced the Inversive Congruential Generator (ICG) in 1986. It is basically characterized as follows: For iterated relations vi+1 = (avi-1 + b) mod p with a secret seed v0 ϵ ℤp, each iteration produces MSBδ(vi+1) where i ≥ 0. The ICG family of pseudorandom number generators is a significant subclass of number-theoretic pseudorandom number generators. Sakai-Kasahara scheme is an identity-based encryption (IBE) system proposed by Sakai and Kasahara. It is one of the few commercially implemented identity-based encryption schemes. We explore the Coppersmith approach for solving a class of modular polynomial equations, which is derived from the recovery issue for the hidden number α in MIHNP and the secret seed v0 in ICG, respectively. Take a positive integer n = d3+o(1) for some positive integer constant d. We propose a heuristic technique for recovering the hidden number α or secret seed v0 with a probability close to 1 when δ/log2 p > 1/d+1 +o(1/d ). The attack's total time complexity is polynomial in the order of log2 p, with the complexity of the LLL algorithm increasing as dO(d) and the complexity of the Grobner basis computation increasing as dO(n). When d > 2, this asymptotic bound surpasses the asymptotic bound δ/log2 p > 1/3 established by Boneh, Halevi, and Howgrave-Graham at Asiacrypt 2001. This is the first time a more precise constraint for solving MIHNP is established, implying that the claim that MIHNP is difficult is violated whenever δ/log2 p < 1/3 . Then we study ICG. To our knowledge, we achieve the best performance for attacking ICG to date. Finally, we provide an MIHNP-based lattice approach that recovers the signer's secret key in the Sakai-Kasahara type signatures when the most (least) significant bits of the signing exponents are exposed. This improves the existing work in this direction.Show more - PublicationSolving a class of modular polynomial equations and its relation to modular inversion hidden number problem and inversive congruential generator(01-09-2018)
;Xu, Jun; ;Hu, Lei ;Huang, ZhangjiePeng, LiqiangShow more In this paper we revisit the modular inversion hidden number problem (MIHNP) and the inversive congruential generator (ICG) and consider how to attack them more efficiently. We consider systems of modular polynomial equations of the form aij+bijxi+cijxj+xixj=0(modp) and show the relation between solving such equations and attacking MIHNP and ICG. We present three heuristic strategies using Coppersmith’s lattice-based root-finding technique for solving the above modular equations. In the first strategy, we use the polynomial number of samples and get the same asymptotic bound on attacking ICG proposed in PKC 2012, which is the best result so far. However, exponential number of samples is required in the work of PKC 2012. In the second strategy, a part of polynomials chosen for the involved lattice are linear combinations of some polynomials and this enables us to achieve a larger upper bound for the desired root. Corresponding to the analysis of MIHNP we give an explicit lattice construction of the second attack method proposed by Boneh, Halevi and Howgrave-Graham in Asiacrypt 2001. We provide better bound than that in the work of PKC 2012 for attacking ICG. Moreover, we propose the third strategy in order to give a further improvement in the involved lattice construction in the sense of requiring fewer samples.Show more - PublicationImproving Bounds onÂ Elliptic Curve Hidden Number Problem forÂ ECDH Key Exchange(01-01-2022)
;Xu, Jun; ;Wang, HuaxiongHu, LeiShow more Elliptic Curve Hidden Number Problem (EC-HNP) was first introduced by Boneh, Halevi and Howgrave-Graham at Asiacrypt 2001. To rigorously assess the bit security of the Diffie–Hellman key exchange with elliptic curves (ECDH), the Diffie–Hellman variant of EC-HNP, regarded as an elliptic curve analogy of the Hidden Number Problem (HNP), was presented at PKC 2017. This variant can also be used for practical cryptanalysis of ECDH key exchange in the situation of side-channel attacks. In this paper, we revisit the Coppersmith method for solving the involved modular multivariate polynomials in the Diffie–Hellman variant of EC-HNP and demonstrate that, for any given positive integer d, a given sufficiently large prime p, and a fixed elliptic curve over the prime field Fp, if there is an oracle that outputs about 1d+1 of the most (least) significant bits of the x-coordinate of the ECDH key, then one can give a heuristic algorithm to compute all the bits within polynomial time in log 2p. When d> 1, the heuristic result 1d+1 significantly outperforms both the rigorous bound 56 and heuristic bound 12. Due to the heuristics involved in the Coppersmith method, we do not get the ECDH bit security on a fixed curve. However, we experimentally verify the effectiveness of the heuristics on NIST curves for small dimension lattices.Show more