- L Sriramkumar

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# L Sriramkumar

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L Sriramkumar

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L Sriramkumar

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Sriramkumar.L, L.

Sriramkumar, L.

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- PublicationDecoding the phases of early and late time reheating through imprints on primordial gravitational waves(15-09-2021)
;Haque, Md Riajul ;Maity, Debaprasad ;Paul, TanmoyShow more Primordial gravitational waves (GWs) carry the imprints of the dynamics of the universe during its earliest stages. With a variety of GW detectors being proposed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, there is great expectation that observations of primordial GWs can provide us with an unprecedented window to the physics operating during inflation and reheating. In this work, we closely examine the effects of the regime of reheating on the spectrum of primordial GWs observed today. We consider a scenario wherein the phase of reheating is described by an averaged equation of state (EoS) parameter with an abrupt transition to radiation domination as well as a scenario wherein there is a gradual change in the effective EoS parameter to that of radiation due to the perturbative decay of the inflaton. We show that the perturbative decay of the inflaton leads to oscillations in the spectrum of GWs, which, if observed, can possibly help us decipher finer aspects of the reheating mechanism. We also examine the effects of a secondary phase of reheating arising due to a brief epoch driven possibly by an exotic, noncanonical, scalar field. Interestingly, we find that, for suitable values of the EoS parameter governing the secondary phase of reheating, the GWs can be of the strength as suggested by the recent NANOGrav observations. We conclude with a discussion of the wider implications of our analysis.Show more - PublicationWhat Do Detectors Detect?(01-01-2017)
Show more By a detector, one has in mind a point particle with internal energy levels, which when set in motion on a generic trajectory can get excited due to its interaction with a quantum field. Detectors have often been considered as a helpful tool to understand the concept of a particle in a curved spacetime. Specifically, they have been used extensively to investigate the thermal effects that arise in the presence of horizons. In this article, I review the concept of detectors and discuss their response when they are coupled linearly as well as non-linearly to a quantum scalar field in different situations. In particular, I discuss as to how the response of detectors does not necessarily reflect the particle content of the quantum field. I also describe an interesting ‘inversion of statistics’ that occurs in odd spacetime dimensions for ‘odd couplings’, i.e. the response of a uniformly accelerating detector is characterized by a Fermi–Dirac distribution even when it is interacting with a scalar field. Moreover, by coupling the detector to a quantum field that is governed by a modified dispersion relation arising supposedly due to quantum gravitational effects, I examine the possible Planck scale modifications to the response of a rotating detector in flat spacetime. Lastly, I discuss as to why detectors that are switched on for a finite period of time need to be turned on smoothly in order to have a meaningful response.Show more - PublicationGeneration of scale invariant magnetic fields in bouncing universes(02-09-2015)
; ;Atmjeet, KumarJain, Rajeev KumarShow more We consider the generation of primordial magnetic fields in a class of bouncing models when the electromagnetic action is coupled non-minimally to a scalar field that, say, drives the background evolution. For scale factors that have the power law form at very early times and non-minimal couplings which are simple powers of the scale factor, one can easily show that scale invariant spectra for the magnetic field can arise before the bounce for certain values of the indices involved. It will be interesting to examine if these power spectra retain their shape after the bounce. However, analytical solutions for the Fourier modes of the electromagnetic vector potential across the bounce are difficult to obtain. In this work, with the help of a new time variable that we introduce, which we refer to as the e - fold, we investigate these scenarios numerically. Imposing the initial conditions on the modes in the contracting phase, we numerically evolve the modes across the bounce and evaluate the spectra of the electric and magnetic fields at a suitable time after the bounce. As one could have intuitively expected, though the complete spectra depend on the details of the bounce, we find that, under the original conditions, scale invariant spectra of the magnetic fields do arise for wavenumbers much smaller than the scale associated with the bounce. We also show that magnetic fields which correspond to observed strengths today can be generated for specific values of the parameters. But, we find that, at the bounce, the backreaction due to the electromagnetic modes that have been generated can be significantly large calling into question the viability of the model. We briefly discuss the implications of our results.Show more - PublicationThe scalar bi-spectrum in the Starobinsky model: The equilateral case(01-01-2012)
;Martin, JÃ©romeShow more While a featureless, nearly scale invariant, primordial scalar power spectrum fits the most recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data rather well, certain features in the spectrum are known to lead to a better fit to the data (although, the statistical significance of such results remains an open issue). In the inflationary scenario, one or more periods of deviations from slow roll are necessary in order to generate features in the scalar perturbation spectrum. Over the last couple of years, it has been recognized that such deviations from slow roll inflation can also result in reasonably large non-Gaussianities. The Starobinsky model involves the canonical scalar field and consists of a linear inflaton potential with a sudden change in the slope. The change in the slope causes a brief period of departure from slow roll which, in turn, results in a sharp rise in power, along with a burst of oscillations in the scalar spectrum for modes that leave the Hubble radius just before and during the period of fast roll. The hallmark of the Starobinsky model is that it allows the scalar power spectrum to be evaluated analytically in terms of the three parameters that describe the model, viz. the two slopes that describe the potential on either side of the discontinuity and the Hubble scale at the time when the field crosses the discontinuity. In this work, we evaluate the bi-spectrum of the scalar perturbations in the Starobinsky model in the equilateral limit. Remarkably, we find that, just as the power spectrum, all the different contributions to the the bi-spectrum too can be evaluated completely analytically and expressed in terms of the three paramaters that describe the model. We show that the quantity f NL, which characterizes the extent of non-Gaussianity, can be expressed purely in terms of the ratio of the two slopes on either side of the discontinuity in the potential. Further, we find that, for certain values of the parameters, f NL in the Starobinsky model can be as large as the mean value that has been arrived at from the analysis of the recent CMB data. We also demonstrate that the usual hierarchy of contributions to the bi-spectrum can be altered for certain values of the parameters. Altogether, we find that the Starobinsky model represents a unique scenario wherein, even when the slow roll conditions are violated, the background, the perturbations as well as the corresponding two and three point correlation functions can be evaluated completely analytically. As a consequence, the Starobinsky model can also be used to calibrate numerical codes aimed at computing the non-Gaussianities. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.Show more - PublicationMoving mirrors and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem(29-07-2016)
;Stargen, D. Jaffino; Show more We investigate the random motion of a mirror in (1+1)-dimensions that is immersed in a thermal bath of massless scalar particles which are interacting with the mirror through a boundary condition. Imposing the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary conditions on the moving mirror, we evaluate the mean radiation reaction force on the mirror and the correlation function describing the fluctuations in the force about the mean value. From the correlation function thus obtained, we explicitly establish the fluctuation-dissipation theorem governing the moving mirror. Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we compute the mean-squared displacement of the mirror at finite and zero temperature. We clarify a few points concerning the various limiting behavior of the mean-squared displacement of the mirror. While we recover the standard result at finite temperature, we find that the mirror diffuses logarithmically at zero temperature, confirming similar conclusions that have been arrived at earlier in this context. We also comment on a subtlety concerning the comparison between zero temperature limit of the finite temperature result and the exact zero temperature result.Show more - PublicationPrimordial features from ekpyrotic bounces(15-02-2019)
;Raveendran, Rathul NathShow more Certain features in the primordial scalar power spectrum are known to improve the fit to the cosmological data. We examine whether bouncing scenarios can remain viable if future data confirm the presence of such features. In inflation, the fact that the trajectory is an attractor permits the generation of features. However, bouncing scenarios often require fine-tuned initial conditions, and it is only the ekpyrotic models that allow attractors. We demonstrate, for the first time, that ekpyrotic scenarios can generate specific features that have been considered in the context of inflation.Show more - PublicationEnhanced power on small scales and evolution of quantum state of perturbations in single and two field inflationary models(01-08-2022)
;Raveendran, Rathul Nath ;Parattu, KrishnamohanShow more With the detection of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes, over the last few years, there has been a considerable interest in the literature to understand if these black holes could have originated in the early universe. If the primordial scalar power over small scales is boosted considerably when compared to the COBE normalized amplitude over large scales, then, such an increased power can lead to a copious production of primordial black holes that can constitute a significant fraction of the cold dark matter density today. Recently, many models of inflation involving single or two scalar fields have been constructed which lead to enhanced power on small scales. In this work, we examine the evolution of the quantum state of the curvature perturbations in such single and two field models of inflation using measures of squeezing, entanglement entropy or quantum discord. We find that, in the single as well as the two field models, the extent of squeezing of the modes is enhanced to a certain extent (when compared to the scenarios involving only slow roll) over modes which exhibit increased scalar power. Moreover, we show that, in the two field models, the entanglement entropy associated with the curvature perturbation, arrived at when the isocurvature perturbation has been traced out, is also enhanced over the small scales. We also take the opportunity to discuss the relation between entanglement entropy and quantum discord in the case of the two field model. We conclude with a brief discussion on the wider implications of the results.Show more - PublicationGenerating primordial features at large scales in two field models of inflation(01-08-2020)
;Braglia, Matteo ;Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Finelli, FabioShow more We investigate the generation of features at large scales in the primordial power spectrum (PPS) when inflation is driven by two scalar fields. In canonical single field models of inflation, these features are often generated due to deviations from the slow-roll regime. While deviations from slow-roll can be naturally achieved in two field models due to a sharp turn in the trajectory in the field space, features at the largest scales of the types suggested by CMB temperature anisotropies are more difficult to achieve in models involving two canonical scalar fields due to the presence of isocurvature fluctuations. We show instead that a coupling between the kinetic terms of the scalar fields can easily produce such features. We discuss models whose theoretical predictions are consistent with current observations and highlight the implications of our results.Show more - PublicationExamining the consistency relations describing the three-point functions involving tensors(01-11-2014)
;Sreenath, V.Show more It is well known that the non-Gaussianity parameter fNL characterizing the scalar bi-spectrum can be expressed in terms of the scalar spectral index in the squeezed limit, a property that is referred to as the consistency relation. In contrast to the scalar bi-spectrum, the three-point cross-correlations involving scalars and tensors and the tensor bi-spectrum have not received adequate attention, which can be largely attributed to the fact that the tensors had remained undetected at the level of the power spectrum until very recently. The detection of the imprints of the primordial tensor perturbations by BICEP2 and its indication of a rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio, if confirmed, can open up a new window for understanding the tensor perturbations, not only at the level of the power spectrum, but also in the realm of non-Gaussianities. In this work, we consider the consistency relations associated with the three-point cross-correlations involving scalars and tensors as well as the tensor bi-spectrum in inflationary models driven by a single, canonical, scalar field. Characterizing the cross-correlations in terms of the dimensionless non-Gaussianity parameters CNL and CNLγ that we had introduced earlier, we express the consistency relations governing the cross-correlations as relations between these non-Gaussianity parameters and the scalar or tensor spectral indices, in a fashion similar to that of the purely scalar case. We also discuss the corresponding relation for the non-Gaussianity parameter hNL used to describe the tensor bi-spectrum. We analytically establish these consistency relations explicitly in the following two situations: a simple example involving a specific case of power law inflation and a non-trivial scenario in the so-called Starobinsky model that is governed by a linear potential with a sharp change in its slope. We also numerically verify the consistency relations in three types of inflationary models that permit deviations from slow roll and lead to scalar power spectra with features which typically result in an improved fit to the data than the more conventional, nearly scale invariant, spectra. We close with a summary of the results we have obtained.Show more - PublicationThe scalar-scalar-tensor inflationary three-point function in the axion monodromy model(21-11-2016)
;Chowdhury, Debika ;Sreenath, V.Show more The axion monodromy model involves a canonical scalar field that is governed by a linear potential with superimposed modulations. The modulations in the potential are responsible for a resonant behavior which gives rise to persisting oscillations in the scalar and, to a smaller extent, in the tensor power spectra. Interestingly, such spectra have been shown to lead to an improved fit to the cosmological data than the more conventional, nearly scale invariant, primordial power spectra. The scalar bi-spectrum in the model too exhibits continued modulations and the resonance is known to boost the amplitude of the scalar non-Gaussianity parameter to rather large values. An analytical expression for the scalar bispectrum had been arrived at earlier which, in fact, has been used to compare the model with the cosmic microwave background anisotropies at the level of three-point functions involving scalars. In this work, with future applications in mind, we arrive at a similar analytical template for the scalar-scalar-tensor cross-correlation. We also analytically establish the consistency relation (in the squeezed limit) for this three-point function. We conclude with a summary of the main results obtained.Show more